Here are the biggest takeaway quotes from the two-hour special:
(A quick note: Jenner requested that everyone continue to use the name "Bruce" and he/him/his pronouns to refer to him.)
The big question
"Are you a woman?" Diane Sawyer asked him early in the interview.
"Um, yes, for all intents and purposes, I am a woman," Jenner replies.
On his Olympic glory
When he was declared the greatest athlete in the world at the 1976 Olympics, he was "a confused person at that time, running away from my life, running away from who I was."
On what a significant moment the night is
"My whole life has been getting me ready for this," Jenner said. "My whole life has prepared me for this moment, and I want to take advantage of it, and I want to do the right thing."
When he knew
As a kid, Jenner said his dad nicknamed the high-energy little kid "Bruiser." But by the time he was 8 or 9 years old, he wanted to try on a dress.
"It just made me feel good," Jenner said.
Growing up with a secret
"I was a lonely little boy," Jenner said of growing up knowing he was different. "I'm a lonely big boy now.... I don't socialize a lot."
Why he finally had to say something
"I just can't pull the curtain any longer," Jenner said. "Bruce lives a lie. She is not a lie."
He continued: "If I die, which, I could be diagnosed next week with cancer, and — boom — you're gone, I'd be so mad at myself that I didn't explore that side of me."
On his sexuality
"I always felt heterosexual," Jenner said. "I'm not gay. As far as I know I'm heterosexual." He explained later that there's a big difference between gender and sexuality: "Sexuality is who you're attracted to... gender is who you are... in your soul."
On his early attempt at transition
Jenner admits that he began taking hormones in the 1980s. When he would give motivational speeches on facing your fears, "I would walk off the stage and feel like a liar." Afterward, he would go back to his room and change into a dress.
When he met Kris Kardashian, "I had been on hormones for years and was a solid 36B-something," Jenner said. "You really can't hide those." But ultimately, fear of coming out and what it would do to his children caused him to go off the hormones.
On his marriage to Kris
"I loved Kris. I had a wonderful life with her. I learned a lot from her. That's what you like in a relationship, to learn from the other person," Jenner said. "If [Kris] was good with [my transition], we'd probably still be together."
What his children had to say
Jenner's four children from his first two marriages appeared on camera to support their dad.
"I feel like I'm getting an upgraded version of my dad, of a parent," said his oldest son, Brandon.
His daughter Leah asked him what they should call him as a woman.
"He said, 'I'm Dad. You can call me Dad. I will always be your dad,'" Leah said.
Of the Kardashian clan, Kim was the first to find out Bruce liked to wear dresses: She accidentally walked in on him sporting one.
On how Kanye changed Kim's mind
"Kim told me a story," Jenner said. "She goes, 'You know what really turned me around? On thinking about this?' And I said, 'What?' And she said, 'Kanye.'"
"I went 'Oh, OK.' They were talking about it and he says to Kim, 'Look, I can be married to the most beautiful woman in the world, and I am. I can have the most beautiful daughter in the world, and I have that. ... but if I can't be true to myself... I'm nothing if I can't be me.'"
"And since then, Kimberly has been by far the most accepting, and the easiest to talk to about it," Jenner said.
Surprisingly, Khloe has had the most trouble accepting what's happening. Jenner said it was probably because she'd faced the most losses in her life, including her dad's death and her divorce from Lamar Odom.
On the struggles of the greater trans community
Jenner clarified that he is not a spokesperson for the transgender community. He pointed out the issues others in the trans community face: "The suicide rates, the murder rates, the difficulty for especially black female women."
On his politics
Despite his identity, Jenner made a surprising announcement about his political affiliations.
"Are you a Republican?" Diane Sawyer asked him.
"Yeah!" Jenner exclaimed. "Is that a bad thing? I believe in the Constitution!" He said he didn't think other Republicans would have any issues accepting him.
On what the future holds
The big question at the end of the interview was: What's next? Will Jenner seek referrals for reassignment surgery?
"I already have two referrals," Jenner said. "I'm way ahead of you. ...There's no rush on any of this. ... SRS [sexual reassignment surgery] would be down the line."
Jenner declined to say whether he'll be taking a new name.
"The media would go crazy," he predicted. "I've still got a little bit of time."
On saying goodbye
"I'm saying goodbye to people's perception of me and who I am," Jenner said at the end of the interview. "I'm not saying goodbye to me, because this has always been me."
E! also announced on Friday that its eight-part docuseries about Jenner's transition and life afterward will premiere on Sunday, July 26 at 9/8c. A series title will be announced at a later date.
What did you think of the interview?
Look back at Caitlyn Jenner's inspiring journey: