- Graduated as a history major from Franklin & Marshall College with the intention of going to law school.
- Served three years in the U.S. Air Force after college, rising to the rank of first lieutenant.
- Earned his distinctive broken nose in the New Jersey Diamond Gloves Boxing Competition.
- Made his professional acting debut as Mercutio in a 1961 New York Shakespeare Festival production of Romeo and Juliet.
- Breakthrough part came in Jaws (1975), uttering the immortal line: "You're gonna need a bigger boat."
- 1981, BAFTA Film Awards — Best Actor: Nominee
- 1979, Oscar — Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role: Nominee
- 1980, Golden Globe — Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy: Nominee
- 1998, Independent Spirit Awards — Best Supporting Male: Nominee
- 1971, Oscar — Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role: Nominee
- Christian Verrier Scheider — Son
- Cynthia Scheider — Ex-wife
- Anna (Crosson) Scheider — Mother
- Roy Bernhard Scheider — Father
- Maximillia Scheider — Daughter
- Brenda King — Wife
- Molly Mae Scheider — Daughter
- Glenn Scheider — Brother
- Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States (1955); attended Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Camden, New Jersey, United States