"This isn't the first time I've been mistaken for Ryan Reynolds," he joked, shouting out the Deadpool star and his fellow nominee. "This is getting out of hand."
He then got serious, thanking his longtime girlfriend Eva Mendes, who was pregnant with their second child while simultaneously taking care of her brother, who was battling cancer, while Gosling was filming the movie.
"If she hadn't have taken all that on so that I could have this experience, it would surely be someone else other than me up here today," he said. "So sweetheart, thank you."
He dedicated the award to the memory of her brother, Juan Carlo Mendes.
Check out our complete Golden Globes coverage here
Gosling had been nominated four times previously, for Lars and the Real Girl, Blue Valentine, Crazy, Stupid, Love and The Ides of March, before taking home a trophy for his role as struggling musician and aspiring jazz club owner Sebastian Wilder in director Damien Chazelle's love letter to classic Hollywood musicals.