First band was the Illinois-based goth-metal group the Marked.
After forming the Smashing Pumpkins in 1988, made his recording debut with the band's 1991 album, Gish.
Reached his commercial peak with the Pumpkins' Siamese Dream (1993) and the double album Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness (1995), which each sold more than four million copies in the U.S. alone.
Contributed to the scores of big-screen features Ransom (1996) and Stigmata (1999).
Following the Pumpkins' breakup in 2000, formed a new rock band named Zwan, which issued just one album, Mary Star of the Sea (2003).
Released a collection of poetry, Blinking With Fists, in 2004.
Made his full-length solo debut with the electronica-tinged TheFutureEmbrace (2005).
Re-formed the Pumpkins, with original drummer Jimmy Chamberlain and a new guitarist and bassist, in 2005; released one album, Zeitgeist (2007), and an EP, American Gothic (2008), with this lineup before Chamberlain departed.